This course exposes to the students some issues discussed in philosophy of religion, be it classical or modern, utilized either in the west or in the Islamic world. Among the issues discussed are various theological concepts from Western and Muslim philosophies, arguments for/against the existence of God, the problem of evil and others.


  1. Hick, John. (1988). Philosophy of Religion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  2. Al-Ash’ari. (2000). Al-Luma` fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Bida` [“The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators”]. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-ÑIlmiyyah.
  3. Fakhry, Majid. (1970). A History of Islamic Philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press
  4. Pojman, Louis. (1987). Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Belmont: Wadsworth.
  5. Pojman, Louis. (1991). Introduction to Philosophy. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  6. Runzo, Joseph. (2001). Global Philosophy of Religion: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Oneworld.
  7. Sharif, M. M. (Ed.). (1983). A History of Muslim Philosophy. Karachi: Royal Book Company.
  8. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. (1962). The Meaning and End of Religion. New York: Harper & Row.
  9. Watt, W. Montgomery. (1948). Free Will and Predestination in Early Islam. London: Luzac & Co.